(SOLVED) Steady-state concentration achieved by a repeated drug dosing
The steady-state concentration achieved by a repeated drug dosing is most likely to be affected by: Select one alternative:
the patient going to a friend’s birthday party and smoking 3 cigarettes
the patient running a marathon, not drinking enough water and becoming temporarily dehydrated
the patient forgets to take a dose
the patient beginning treatment with another drug which is known to induce drug metabolism
Ischaemia is most likely to induce: Select one alternative:
isoenzymes in the blood
increased ATP production
hypoxic cell injury
vasoconstriction and hypertension
Which of the following best describes the most common pathophysiologic mechanism present during ST segment elevation myocardial infarction? Select one alternative:
Coronary plaque erosion
Coronary plaque progression causing progressive stenosis
Coronary plaque rupture
Which of the following statements is CORRECT? Select one alternative:
Drug absorption is virtually instantaneous, regardless of route of administration
Bioequivalence means two different formulations of a drug act in exactly the same way
Increased intestinal motility (e.g. as caused by diarrhoea) can decrease the extent of drug absorption and cause therapeutic failure
The pH is the same in all parts of the body so does not affect drug movement
Which medication information will the nurse identify as a concern for a patient's musculoskeletal status? Select one alternative:
The patient has severe asthma and requires frequent therapy with oral corticosteroids
The patient takes hormone therapy (HT) to prevent "hot flashes"
The patient has migraine headaches treated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)
The patient takes a daily multivitamin and calcium supplement
What is the role of aldosterone in blood pressure management?
it stimulates the production of renin
it stimulates the retention of fluid and sodium
it stimulates the conversion of angiotensin 1 to angiotensin 2
it stimulates vasoconstriction of the arterioles
A patient is admitted to the Emergency Department for shock following a road traffic crash. Shock is a clinical syndrome in which cellular dysfunction and organ failure occur primarily because of:
impaired tissue perfusion
A 23 year old patient who has a well-functioning gastrointestinal tract and swallow, is unable to take adequate nutrition by mouth. What is the best method for administering nutritional supplements to this patient?
total parenteral nutrition
What is the primary cause of patients requiring joint replacement surgery?
degenerative disease processes
previous joint surgeries
multiple choice question
Expert Solution Preview
Q: The steady-state concentration achieved by a repeated drug dosing is most likely to be affected by:
Ans: c) the patient forgets to take a dose
Explanation: Steady-State Concentration refers to a dynamic equilibrium in which medication concentrations remain continuously under therapeutic limits for lengthy periods of time, sometimes indefinitely. The steady-state concentration is the level at which the drug concentration remains constant throughout time.
As a result, if a person forgets to take a dosage, the dynamic equilibrium of the therapeutic concentration of the medicine is disrupted, and the therapeutic outcome suffers as a result.
Q: Ischaemia is most likely to induce:
Ans: d) vasoconstriction and hypertension
Explanation: By depositing fat in the coronary arteries, ischemia reduces blood flow and oxygen delivery to the heart, resulting in vasoconstriction and hypertension owing to poor blood regulation.
Q: Which of the following best describes the most common pathophysiologic mechanism present during ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction?
Ans: d) Coronary plaque rupture
Explanation: The rupture of an atherosclerotic plaque on an artery feeding heart muscle is the most prevalent cause of myocardial infarction. Plaques can become unstable, burst, and stimulate the development of a blood clot that plugs the artery; all of this can happen in a matter of minutes.
Q: Which of the following statements is CORRECT?
Ans: c) Increased intestinal motility (e.g. as caused by diarrhea) can decrease the extent of drug absorption and cause therapeutic failure.
Explanation: The rate of absorption of medicine is boosted by increasing gastric emptying and gastrointestinal motility, although greater gastrointestinal motility is related to a reduction in the rate of absorption.
Q: Which medication information will the nurse identify as a concern for a patient's musculoskeletal status?
Ans: b)The patient takes hormone therapy (HT) to prevent "hot flashes"
Q: What is the role of aldosterone in blood pressure management?
Ans: b) it stimulates the retention of fluid and sodium
Explanation: Aldosterone acts on the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct to enhance sodium reabsorption. As a result, it is a necessary sodium-ion regulator, as its absence or hyposecretion results in sodium loss through urine.
Q: A patient is admitted to the Emergency Department for shock following a road traffic crash. Shock is a clinical syndrome in which cellular dysfunction and organ failure occur primarily because of:
Ans: a) blood loss
Explanation: Hypovolemic shock is a life-threatening condition in which the heart is unable to pump enough blood to the body due to substantial blood or other fluid loss. Many organs can stop working as a result of this sort of trauma.
Q: A 23-year-old patient who has a well-functioning gastrointestinal tract and swallows, is unable to take adequate nutrition by mouth. What is the best method for administering nutritional supplements to this patient?
Ans: a) Nasogastric feedig
Explanation: A tube that is introduced into the stomach through the nose, through the neck, and esophagus. It can be used to provide medications, liquids, or liquid meals, as well as to remove things from the stomach. Enteral nutrition is when food is given through a nasogastric tube. Also known as an NG tube or a gastric feeding tube.
Q: What is the primary cause of patients requiring joint replacement surgery?
Ans: c) degenerative disease processes
Explanation: In the degenerative disease process the joint replacement surgery is the right option in which the damaged cartilage and bone in your joint are removed and replaced with metal, plastic, or ceramic prosthetic components. The prosthesis is designed to look and move like a natural joint.