Sowards, S. W. (2015, March 08). 

Lecture No. 11: Macedonia and the failure of Ottoman reforms


 Twenty-Five Lectures on Modern Balkan History:

Yapp, M. E., Shaw, J. S. (2023). 

The Ottoman Empire

. Britannica. 

Read the information in the background material, look for more information, and then write a 3- to 5-page paper answering the following question:

What were the Tanzimat Reforms and were they effective in allowing the Middle East to catch up to the West?

Describe the purpose of the paper and conclusion.

Double space the paper.

Provide citations to support your argument and references on a separate page. Please use 

APA format

 to provide citations and references.